The carriage still consists of a 1½"copper column 32" high packed with stainless steel filaments. It provides exceptionally efficient fractionation of the components in an alcoholic mixture. The still-head is made of glass and contains a stream-splitter for dividing the reflux into two streams --- the minor stream exiting through a needle valve to a collection bottle while the other (major) stream pours down through the packing to provide hundreds of mini-redistillations and extreme purification.
Condensation of vapour is provided by a coil of copper tubing in the still-head through which cooling water runs.
The alcohol to be purified is boiled in a 35-45 litre (10-12 US gallon) hot water heater with thermostat removed to permit boiling. An ordinary domestic hot water heater with a 750 watt heating element is recommended. This can be obtained by purchasing a water heater with a 3,000 watt, 240 volt element and using it on 120 volts. The wattage is divided by four because the voltage is halved, the current is halved and watts = volts x amps = 1/2/ x 1/2 = 1/4 x 3,000 = 750.